Make your own free website on Tripod.com

INDIA'S GLORIOUS KINGS

Home
Buddha's Proof of Having Become God
Lord Buddha Is God
The Triple Gem
Heart Sutra - Bloodless Circumcision
The Bodhi Tree - The Tree of Wisdom
Nibbana is Shivam
Lord Buddha Puja
Buddha Pictures
India's Glorious Kings
Golden Light Sutra
10 Perfections - 10 Jatakas
BUDDHA IS THE MAHAPURUSHA
Avalokiteshwar and Hanuman
Goddess Tara
Lord Buddha is Narasimha - The Lion Amongst Men!
Lord Buddha Is Called Gopala and MahaGovinda- The Wise Cowherder
Buddha as Vishnu
Lord Buddha Is Lord Rama - Dasaratha Jataka
Kanha - Ghata Jataka
Bhagwad Gita - A Buddhist Sutra?
BuddhaTube
Buddhism and Hinduism
Buddhism and Christianity
Buddhist Hindu Calendar
Contact Me

   
   

 
The Glorious King
samantabhadrabodhisattva08.jpg

   
   

 

silverband5.jpg

Not too many people know about India's glorious kings.  Although Indians know about Lord Rama and Lord Krishna Vasudeva, there were other kings only mentioned in Buddhist Scriptures (they were our very own Tataghata ofcourse!) that Hindu did not even know of.  Only Buddha brings knowledge of these Kings who surpass the kings of legend from all other cultures and traditions (surpassing in virtue,  sacrifice, length of life and wealth and power the Sumerian,  Biblical, Chinese and European kings as preserved in their legends).
 
In modern India, where our values of peace, self sacrifice are being mocked as impractical and Indians being told to pick up swords, guns and to kill -- Lord Buddha reminds us that it is this peacefulness that made Buddhas and the most powerful kings always be born in India -- for no other piece of earth is as holy and full of merit, there is no other place on earth that could support the weight of the birth of these masters. 
 
Here is a lovely contrast on the other "practical kings" that modern Indians love to preach as followers of the "Artha Sastra" vs. our Buddha or wisdom Kings who follow holy writ from the Rajaovada Jataka (#151):
 
"Rough to the rough, king Mallika the mild with mildness sways,
Masters the good by goodness, and the bad with badness pays.
Give place, give place, O driver! such are this monarch's ways!"

[4] "Oh," said the man of the king of Benares, "is that all you have to say about your king's virtues?" "Yes," said the other.--"If these are his virtues, what must his vices be?" "Vices be it, then," quoth he, "if you will; but let us hear what your king's virtues may be like!" "Listen then," rejoined the first, and repeated the second verse:--

"He conquers wrath by mildness, the bad with goodness sways,
By gifts the miser vanquishes and lies with truth repays.
Give place, give place, O driver! such are this monarch's ways 
1!"
 
TRULY, India's Dharma Kings were glorious and worth emulating!  Only our kings lived Dharma, paying good for evil, giving to overcome stinginess, and speaking the truth when lies abound!
 
Here I would like to present these mighty kings and the sacrifices that made Buddhahood possible for our beloved Bodhisatva. 
 
King Mahasuddasana who's life and legend are preserved in not only the Jataka but the Digha Nikaya.  His life was over 300,000 years, longer lived than any Sumerian kings.  Even longer lived is King Mahasamata -- who lived millions of years after conquering heaven! 
 
Is this make believe?  Pure myth?  Lord Buddha said, see for yourself -- does meditation and leading a life of truth, virtue and giving lead to such fantastic gains???
 
As a tribute to their life and Legend, I hope to present their stories and hopefully if we are able to emulate their lives of self sacrifice even a little, we shall be on the path to righteousness.

1)Click to Read Story of Prince Vessantara -- he sacrificed his heart (children emerge from the heart in the Upanishads) and half of his body (his wife) while alive!!!

2)Click to Read the Story of King Nimi -- The ONLY mortal king to enter heavens and hells in a mortal body and lives to tell his people!

3) Read the story of the Bodhisat as a Chakravartin Maharajah Mandhatta who can make gems shower from heaven and conquers heaven in his mortal body!

4)King Sivi's Sacrifice of his own eyes while alive!

dn.gif

THE GREAT KING OF GLORY

MAHĀ-SUDASSANA-SUTTA.

CHAPTER I.

1. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once staying at Kusinārā in the Upavattana, the Sāla grove of the Mallas, between the twin Sāla trees, at the time of his death.

2. Now the venerable Ānanda went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and bowed down before him, and took his seat respectfully on one side. And when he was so seated, the venerable Ānanda said to the Blessed One:

2 'Let not the Blessed One die in this little wattel and daub town, in this town in the midst of the jungle, in this branch township. For, Lord, there are other great cities, such as Kampā, Rāgagaha, Sāvatthi, Sāketa, Kosambi, and Benāres. Let the Blessed One die in one of them. There there are many wealthy nobles and Brāhmans and heads of houses, believers in the Tathāgata, who will pay due honour to the remains of the Tathāgata.'

3. 'Say not so, Ānanda! Say not so, Ānanda,

[1. Sudassana means 'beautiful to see, having a glorious appearance,' and is the name of many kings and heroes in Indian legend.

2. From here down to the end of the next section is found also, nearly word for word, in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta, above, pp. 99, 100. Compare also Mahā-Sudassana Gātaka, No. 95.]

p. 248

that this is but a small wattel and daub town, a town in the midst of the jungle, a branch township. Long ago, Ānanda, there was a king, by name Mahā-Sudassana, a king of kings, a righteous man who ruled in righteousness, an anointed Kshatriya[1], Lord of the four quarters of the earth, conqueror, the protector of his people, possessor of the seven royal treasures. This Kusinārā, Ānanda, was the royal city of king Mahā-Sudassana, under the name of Kusāvatī[2], and on the east and on the west it was twelve leagues in length, and on the north and on the south it was seven leagues in breadth. That royal city Kusāvatī, Ānanda, was mighty, and prosperous, and full of people, crowded with men, and provided with all things for food. just, Ānanda, as the royal city of the gods, Ālakamandā by name, is mighty, prosperous, and full of people, crowded with the gods, and provided with all kinds of food, so. Ānanda, was the royal city Kusāvatī mighty and prosperous, full of people, crowded with men, and provided with all kinds of food. Both by day and by night, Ānanda, the royal city Kusāvatī resounded

[1. Khattiyo muddhāvasitto, which does not occur in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta, the Mahāpadhāna Sutta, the Lakkhana Sutta, and other places where this stock description of a Kakkavatti is found. It is omitted also in the Lalita Vistara. The Burmese Phayre MS. of the India Office reads here muddābhisitto, but this is an unnecessary correction. So the name of the Hindu caste mentioned in the Sahyādri Khanda of the Skanda Purāna is spelt both ways. The epithet is probably inserted here from § 12 below.

2. Kusāvatī was the name of a famous city mentioned as the capital of Southern Kusala in post-Buddhistic Sanskrit plays and epic poems. In the Mahābhārata it is called Kusavatī. It is said to have been so named after Kusa, son of Rāma, by whom it was built; and it is also called Kusasthalī.]

p. 249

with the ten cries; that is to say, the noise of elephants, and the noise of horses, and the noise of chariots; the sounds of the drum, of the tabor, and of the lute; the sound of singing, and the sounds of the cymbal and of the gong; and lastly, with the cry, "Eat, drink, and be merry[1]!"

------------------------

4. 'The royal city Kusāvatī, Ānanda, was surrounded by Seven Ramparts. Of these, one rampart was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal, and one of agate, and one of coral, and one of all kinds of gems[2]!'

[1. This enumeration is found also at Gātaka, p. 3, only that the chank is added there--wrongly, for that makes the number of cries eleven.

2. Beryl, agate, and coral are doubtful renderings of Pāli names of precious substances, the exact meaning of which has been discussed on the very slender evidence available (and hence, it seems to me, with very little certain result) by Burnouf in the 'Lotus de la Bonne Loi,' pp. 319-321; and Professor Max Müller has a further note in the journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1890, p. 178. The Pāli words here are in the first column:

1. Sovannamayo,

Suvarnasya;

2. Rūpimayo,

Rūpasya;

3. Veluriyamayo,

Vaidūryasya;

4. Phalikamayo,

Sphatikasya;

5. Lohitankamayo,

Lohitamuktasya;

6. Masāragallamayo,

Asmagarbhasya;

7. Sabbaratanamayo,

Musāragalvasya:

 

those in the second being taken from the Sukhavatīvyūha in the corresponding to § 6 below. It is quite possible that passage the writers of these passages used the rarer words only as names of precious substances, without attaching any clearly distinct meaning to each (compare Rev. xxi. 19-21). The Pāli author seems to have been hard put to it to find enough names to fill up the sacred number seven; just as in the 'Seven jewels' of the Dhamma, the sacred number seven is reached by giving to one jewel two distinct names (Pańk indriyāni = pańka balāni). At Kulla Vagga IX, 1, 4. we find the following enumeration of {footnote p. 250} ratanas as found in the ocean, though only Nos. 1, 4, 5, 6 are really produced there:

1. Mutta.

6. Pavālam.

2. Mani.

7. Ragatam.

3. Veluriyo.

8. Gātarūpam.

4. Sankho.

9. Lohitanko.

5. Silā

10. Masāragallam.

 

]

p. 250

5. 'To the royal city Kusāvatī, Ānanda, there were Four Gates. One gate was of gold, and one of silver, and one of jade, and one of crystal. At each gate seven pillars were fixed; in height as three times or as four times the height of a man. And one pillar was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal, and one of agate, and one of coral, and one of all kinds of gems.

6. 'The royal city Kusāvatī, Ānanda, was surrounded by Seven Rows of Palm Trees. One row was of palms of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal, and one of agate, and one of coral, and one of all kinds of gems.

7. 'And the Golden Palms had trunks of gold, and leaves and fruits of silver. And the Silver Palms had trunks of silver, and leaves and fruits of gold. And the Palms of Beryl had trunks of beryl, and leaves and fruits of crystal. And the Crystal Palms had trunks of crystal, and leaves and fruits of beryl. And the Agate Palms had trunks of agate, and leaves and fruits of coral. And the Coral Palms had trunks of coral, and leaves and fruits of agate. And the Palms of every kind of Gem had trunks and leaves and fruits of every kind of gem.

8.[1] 'And when those rows of palm trees, Ānanda,

[1. This section and § 9 should be compared with one in the Sukhavatīvyūha, translated by Professor Max Müller as follows (journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1880, p. 170):

'And again, O Sāriputra, when those rows of palm trees and {footnote p. 251} strings of bells in that Buddha country are moved by the wind, a sweet and enrapturing sound proceeds from them. Yes, O Sāriputra, as from a heavenly musical instrument consisting of a hundred thousand kotis of sounds, when played by Āryas, a sweet and enrapturing sound proceeds; a sweet and enrapturing sound proceeds from those rows of palm trees and strings of bells moved by the wind.

'And when the men there hear that sound, reflection on Buddha arises in their body, reflection on the Law, reflection on the Assembly.'

Compare also below, § 81, and Gātaka I, 32.]

p. 251

were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating.

'Just, Ānanda, as the seven kind of instruments yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating-just even so, Ānanda, when those rows of palm trees were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating.

9. 'And whoever, Ānanda, in the royal city Kusāvatī were at that time gamblers, drunkards, and given to drink, they used to dance round together to the sound of those palms when shaken by the wind.

------------------------

10. 'The Great King of Glory, Ānanda, was the possessor of Seven Precious Things, and was gifted with Four Marvellous Powers.'

'What are those seven?'

11.[1] 'In the first place, Ānanda, when the Great King of Glory, on the Sabbath day[2], on the day of

[1. The following enumeration is found word for word in several other Pāli Suttas, and occurs also, in almost identical terms, in the Lalita Vistara (Calcutta edition, pp. 14-19).

2. 'Uposatha, a weekly sacred day; being full-moon day, new-moon day, and the two equidistant intermediate days. Comp. § 21.]

p. 252

the full moon, had purified himself, and had gone up into the upper story of his palace to keep the sacred day, there then appeared to him the heavenly Treasure of the Wheel[1], with its nave, its tire, and all its thousand spokes complete.

12. 'When he beheld it the Great King of Glory thought:

'"This saying have I heard, 'When a king of the warrior race, an anointed king, has purified himself on the Sabbath day, on the day of the full moon, and has gone up into the upper story of his palace to keep the sacred day; if there appear to him the heavenly Treasure of the Wheel, with its nave, its tire, and all its thousand spokes complete-that king becomes a king of kings invincible.' May I, then, become a king of kings invincible[2]."

13. 'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory rose from his seat, and reverently uncovering from one shoulder his robe, he held in his left hand a pitcher, and with his right hand he sprinkled water up over the Wheel, as he said:

'"Roll onward, O my Lord, the Wheel! O my Lord, go forth and overcome!"

14. 'Then the wondrous Wheel, Ānanda, rolled onwards towards the region of the East, and after it went the Great King of Glory[3], and with him his

[1. Kakka-ratanam, where the kakka is the disk of the sun.

2. Kakkavattirāgā.

3. Atha kho kakka-ratanam puratthimam disam pavatti anvad eva rāgā Mahāsudassano, &c. Here anvad must be the Sanskrit anvańk. The Lalita Vistara has anveti in the corresponding passage, and the (Phayre Burmese) MS. here reads anud eva. The verb in the second clause must be supplied, as {footnote p. 253} is the case in the one or two other passages where I have met with this phrase.]

p. 253

army, horses, and chariots, and elephants, and men. And in whatever place, Ānanda, the Wheel stopped, there the Great King of Glory took up his abode, and with him his army, horses, and chariots, and

elephants, and men.

15. 'Then, Ānanda, all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the Great King of Glory and said:

'"Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Do thou, O mighty king, be a Teacher to us!"

16. 'Thus spake the Great King of Glory:

'"Ye shall slay no living thing.

'"Ye shall not take that which has not been given.

'"Ye shall not act wrongly touching the bodily desires.

'"Ye shall speak no lie.

'"Ye shall drink no maddening drink.

'"Ye shall eat as ye have eaten[1]."

17. 'Then, Ānanda, all the rival kings in the region of the East became subject unto the Great King of Glory.

18. 'But the wondrous Wheel, Ānanda, having plunged down into the great waters in the East, rose up out again, and rolled onward to the region of the South [and there all happened as had happened

[1. Yathābhuttambhuńgatha. Buddhaghosa has no comment on this. I suppose it means, 'Observe the rules current among you regarding clean and unclean meats.' If so, the Great King of Glory disregards the teaching of the Āmagandha Sutta, quoted in 'Buddhism,' p. 131.]

p. 254

in the region of the East. And in like manner the wondrous Wheel rolled onward to the extremest boundary of the West and of the North; and there, too, all happened as had happened in the region of the East].

19. 'Now when the wondrous Wheel, Ānanda, had gone forth conquering and to conquer o'er the whole earth to its very ocean boundary, it returned back again to the royal city of Kusāvatī and remained fixed on the open terrace in front of the entrance to the inner apartments of the Great King of Glory, as a glorious adornment to the inner apartments of the Great King of Glory.

20. 'Such, Ānanda, was the wondrous Wheel which appeared to the Great King of Glory.

------------------------

21. 'Now further, Ānanda, there appeared to the Great King of Glory the Elephant Treasure[1], all white, sevenfold firm[2], wonderful in power, flying through the sky--the Elephant-King, whose name was "The Changes of the Moon[3]."

22. 'When he beheld it the Great King of Glory was pleased at heart at the thought

[1. Hatthi-ratana.

2. Satta-ppatittho, that is, perhaps, in regard to its four legs, two tusks, and trunk. The expression is curious, and Buddhaghosa has no note upon it. It is quite possible that it merely signifies 'exceeding firm,' the number seven being used without any hard and fast interpretation.

3. Uposatho. In the Lalita Vistara its name is 'Wisdom' (Bodhi). Uposatha is the name for the sacred day of the moon's changes-first, and more especially the full-moon day; next, the new-moon day; and lastly, the days equidistant between these two. It was therefore a weekly sacred day, and, as Childers says, may often be well rendered 'Sabbath.']

p. 255

'"Auspicious were it to ride upon that Elephant, if only it would submit to be controlled!"

23. 'Then, Ānanda, the wondrous Elephant--like a fine elephant of noble blood long since well trained--submitted to control.

24. 'When as before, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory, to test that wondrous Elephant, mounted on to it early in the morning, it passed over along the broad earth to its very ocean boundary, and then returned again, in time for the morning meal, to the royal city of Kusāvatī[1].

25. 'Such, Ānanda, was the wondrous Elephant that appeared to the Great King of Glory.

26. 'Now further, Ānanda, there appeared to the Great King of Glory the Horse Treasure[2], all white with a black head, and a dark mane, wonderful in power, flying through the sky-the Charger-King, whose name was "Thunder-cloud[3]."

27. 'When he beheld it, the Great King of Glory was pleased at heart at the thought:

'"Auspicious were it to ride upon that Horse if only it would submit to be controlled!"

28. 'Then, Ānanda. the wondrous Horse--like

[1. Compare on this and § 29 my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 85, where a similar phrase is used of Kanthaka.

2 Assa-ratanam.

3 Valāhako. Compare the Valāhassa Gātaka (Fausböll, No. 196, called in the Burmese MS. Valāhakassa Gātaka), of which the Chinese story translated by Mr. Beal at pp. 332-340 of his 'Romantic History,' &c., is an expanded and altered version. In the Valāhaka Samyutta of the Samyutta Nikāya the spirits of the skies are divided into Unha-valāhakā Devā, Sīta-valāhakā Devā, Abbha-valāhakā Devā, Vāta-valāhakā Devā, and Vassa-valāhakā Devā, that is, the cloud-spirits of cold, heat, air, wind, and rain respectively.]

p. 256

a fine horse of the best blood long since well trained--submitted to control.

29. 'When as before, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory, to test that wondrous Horse, mounted on to it early in the morning, it passed over along the broad earth to its very ocean boundary, and then returned again, in time for the morning meal, to the royal city of Kusāvatī.

30. 'Such, Ānanda, was the wondrous Horse that appeared to the Great King of Glory.

------------------------

31. 'Now further, Ānanda, there appeared to the Great King of Glory the Gem-Treasure[1]. That Gem was the Veluriya, bright, of the finest species, with eight facets, excellently wrought, clear, transparent, perfect in every way.

32. 'The splendour, Ānanda, of that wondrous Gem spread round about a league on every side.

33. 'When as before, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory, to test that wondrous Gem, set all his fourfold army in array and raised aloft the Gem upon his standard top, he was able to march out in the gloom and darkness of the night.

34. 'And then too, Ānanda, all the dwellers in the villages, round about, set about their daily work, thinking, "The daylight hath appeared."

35. 'Such, Ānanda, was the wondrous Gem that appeared to the Great King of Glory.

------------------------

36. 'Now further, Ānanda, there appeared to the Great King of Glory the Woman-Treasure[2], graceful in figure, beautiful in appearance, charming in manner, and of the most fine complexion; neither

[1. Mani-ratanam.

2 Itthi-ratanam.]

p. 257

very tall, nor very short; neither very stout, nor very slim; neither very dark, nor very fair; surpassing human beauty, she had attained unto the beauty of the gods[1].

37. 'The touch too, Ānanda, of the skin of that wondrous Woman was as the touch of cotton or of cotton wool: in the cold her limbs were warm, in the heat her limbs were cool; while from her body was wafted the perfume of sandal wood and from her mouth the perfume of the lotus.

38. 'That Pearl among Women too, Ānanda, used to rise up before the Great King of Glory, and after him retire to rest; pleasant was she in speech, and ever on the watch to hear what she might do in order so to act as to give him pleasure.

39. 'That Pearl among Women too, Ānanda, was never, even in thought, unfaithful to the Great King of Glory--how much less then could she be so with the body!

40. 'Such, Ānanda, was the Pearl among Women who appeared to the Great King of Glory.

------------------------

41. 'Now further, Ānanda, there appeared unto the Great King of Glory a Wonderful Treasurer[2], possessed, through good deeds done in a

[1. The above description of an ideally beautiful woman is of frequent occurrence.

2. Gahapati-ratanam. The word gahapati has been hitherto usually rendered 'householder,' but this may often, and would certainly here, convey a wrong impression. There is no single word in English which is an adequate rendering of the term, for it connotes a social condition now no longer known among us. The gahapati was the head of a family, the representative in a village community of a family, the pater familias. So the god of fire, with allusion to the sacred fire maintained in each household, is called in the Rig-veda the grihapati, the pater familias, {footnote p. 258} of the human race. Thence it is often used in opposition to brāhmana very much as we might use 'yeoman' in opposition to 'clerk' (Gātaka I, 83, and below, § 53); and the two combined are used in opposition to people of other ranks and callings held to be less honourable than that of clerk or yeoman (Gātaka I, 218). In this respect the term gahapati is nearly equivalent, though from a different point of view, to the Kshatriyas and Vaisyas of the Hindu caste division; but the compound brāhmana-gahapatikā as a collective term comes to be about equivalent to 'priests and laymen' (see, for instance, below, § 53, and Mahā Vagga I, 22; 3, 4, &c.). Then again the gahapati is distinct from the subordinate members of the family, who had not the control and management of the common property (Sāmańńa Phala Sutta, 133, = Tevigga Sutta I, 47); and it is this implication of the term that is emphasised in the text. Buddhaghosa uses, as an explanatory phrase, the words setthi-gahapati. See further the passages quoted in the index to the Kulla Vagga (p. 354).]

p. 258

former birth, of a marvellous power of vision by which he could discover treasure, whether it had an owner or whether it had not.

42. 'He went up to the Great King of Glory, and said:

'"Do thou, O king, take thine case! I will deal with thy wealth even as wealth should be dealt with."

43. 'Then, as before, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory, to test that wonderful Treasurer, went on board a boat, and had it pushed out into the current in the midst of the river Ganges. Then he said to the wonderful steward:

'"I have need, O Treasurer, of yellow gold!"

'"Let the ship then, O Great King, go alongside either of the banks."

'"It is here, O Treasurer, that I have need of yellow gold."

44. 'Then the wonderful Treasurer reached down to the water with both his hands, and drew up a jar

p. 259

full of yellow gold, and said to the Great King of Glory--

'"Is that enough, O Great King? Have I done enough, O Great King?"

'And the Great King of Glory replied:

'"It is enough, O Treasurer. You have done enough, O Treasurer. You have offered me enough, O Treasurer!"

45. 'Such was the wonderful Treasurer, Ānanda, who appeared to the Great King of Glory.

------------------------

46. 'Now further, Ānanda, there appeared to the Great King of Glory a Wonderful Adviser[1], learned, clever, and wise; and qualified to lead the Great King of Glory to undertake what he ought to undertake, and to leave undone what he ought to leave undone.

47. 'He went up to the Great King of Glory, and said:

'"Do thou, O King, take thine ease! I will be thy guide."

48. 'Such, Ānanda, was the wonderful Adviser who appeared to the Great King of Glory.

'The Great King of Glory was possessed of these Seven Precious Things.

------------------------

49. 'Now further, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory was gifted with Four Marvellous Gifts[2].'

'What are the Four Marvellous Gifts?'

[1. Parināyaka-ratanam. Buddhaghosa says that he was the eldest son of the king; but this is probably a mere putting back into the Sutta of a later idea derived from the summary in the Gātaka. The Lalita Vistara makes him a general.

2. Katūhi iddhīhi. Here again, as elsewhere, it will be noticed that there is nothing supernatural about these four Iddhis. See {footnote p. 260} the notes above on the 'Book of the Great Decease,' I, 1; III, 2. They are merely attributes accompanying or forming part of the majesty (iddhi) of the Kakkavatti.]

p. 260

50. 'In the first place, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory was graceful in figure, handsome in appearance, pleasing in manner, and of most beautiful complexion, beyond what other men are.

'The Great King of Glory, Ānanda, was endowed with this First Marvellous Gift.

51. 'And besides that, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory was of long life, and of many years, beyond those of other men.

'The Great King of Glory, Ānanda, was endowed with this Second Marvellous Gift.

52. 'And besides that, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory was free from disease, and free from bodily suffering; and his internal fire was neither too hot nor too cold, but such as to promote good digestion, beyond that of other men[1].

[1. Samavepākiniyā gahaniyā samannāgato nātisītāya nākkunhāya. The same thing is said of Ratthapāla in the Ratthapāla Sutta, where Gogerly renders the whole passage, 'Ratthapāla is healthy, free from pain, having a good digestion and appetite, being troubled with no excess of either heat or cold' (journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society, 1847-1848, p. 98). The gahani is a supposed particular organ or function situate at the junction of the stomach and intestines. Moggallāna explains it, udare tu tathā pākanalasmim gahani (Abhidhāna-ppadīpikī, 972), where Subhūti's Sinhalese version is 'kukshi, pakāgni,' and his English version, 'the belly, the internal fire which promotes digestion.' Buddhaghosa explains samavipākiyā kammagā-tego-dhātuyā, and adds, 'If a man's food is dissolved the moment he has eaten it, or if it remains like a lump, he has not the samavepākini gahani, but he who has appetite (bhattakkhando) when the time for food comes round again, he has the samavepākini gahani,'--which is delightfully naļve.]

p. 261

'The Great King of Glory, Ānanda, was endowed with this Third Marvellous Gift.

53. 'And besides that, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory was beloved and popular with Brāhmans and with laymen alike[1]. Just, Ānanda, as a father is near and dear to his own sons, just so, Ānanda, was the Great King of Glory beloved and popular with Brāhmans and with laymen alike. And just, Ānanda, as his sons are near and dear to a father, just so, Ānanda, were Brāhmans and laymen alike near and dear to the Great King of Glory.

54. 'Once, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory marched out with all his fourfold army to the pleasure ground. There, Ānanda, the Brāhmans and laymen went up to the Great King of Glory, and said:

'"O King, pass slowly by, that we may look upon thee for a longer time!"

'But the Great King of Glory, Ānanda, addressed his charioteer, and said:

'"Drive on the chariot slowly, charioteer, that I may look upon my people (Brāhmans and laymen) for a longer time!"

55. 'This was the Fourth Marvellous Gift, Ānanda, with which the Great King of Glory was endowed.

56. 'These are the Four Marvellous Gifts, Ānanda, with which the Great King of Glory was endowed.

------------------------

57. 'Now to the Great King of Glory, Ānanda, there occurred the thought:

'"Suppose, now, I were to make Lotus-ponds

[1. Brāhmana-gahapatikānam. See the note on § 41.]

p. 262

in the spaces between these palms, at every hundred bow lengths."

'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory, in the spaces between those palms, at distances of a hundred bow lengths, made Lotus-ponds.

58. 'And those Lotus-ponds, Ānanda, were faced with tiles of four kinds. One kind of tile was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal.

59. 'And to each of those Lotus-ponds, Ānanda, there were four flights of steps, of four different kinds. One flight of steps was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal. The flight of golden steps had balustrades of gold, with the cross bars and the figure head of silver. The flight of silver steps had balustrades of silver, with the cross bars and the figure head of gold. The flight of beryl steps had balustrades of beryl, with the cross bars and the figure head of crystal. The flight of crystal steps had balustrades of crystal, with cross bars and figure head of beryl.

60. 'And round those Lotus-ponds there ran, Ānanda, a double railing. One railing was of gold, and one was of silver. The golden railing had its posts of gold, and its cross bars and its capitals of silver. The silver railing had its posts of silver, and its cross bars and its capitals of gold[1].

[1. Pokkharani, the word translated Lotus-pond, is an artificial pool or small lake for water plants. There are some which are probably nearly as old as this passage still in good preservation in Anurādhapuru in Ceylon. Each is oblong, and has its tiles and its four flights of steps, and some had railings. The balustrades, cross bars, figure head, and railing are in Pāli thambhā, sūkiyo, unhīsam, and vedikā, of the exact meaning of which I am not quite confident. They do not occur in the description {footnote p. 263} of the Lotus-lakes in Sukhavatī. General Cunningham says that the cross bars of the Buddhist railings are called sūkiyo in the inscriptions at Bharhut (The Stupa of Bharhut, p. 127). Buddhaghosa, who is good enough to tell us the exact number of the ponds-to wit, 84,000, has no explanation of these words, merely saying that of the two vedikās one was at the limit of the tiles and one at the limit of the parivena. The phrases in the text are repeated below, §§ 73-87, of the Palace of Righteousness.]

p. 263

61. 'Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ānanda, there occurred the thought:

'"Suppose, now, I were to have flowers of every season planted in those Lotus-ponds for the use of all the people-to wit, blue water lilies and blue lotuses, white lotuses and white water lilies."

'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory had flowers of every season planted in those Lotus-ponds for the use of all the people-to wit, blue water lilies and blue lotuses, white lotuses and white water lilies.

62. 'Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ānanda, occurred the thought:

'"Suppose, now, I were to place bathing-men on the banks of those Lotus-ponds, to bathe such of the people as come there from time to time."

'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory placed bathing-men on the banks of those Lotus-ponds, to bathe such of the people as come there from time to time.

63. 'Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ānanda, occurred the thought:

'"Suppose, now, I were to establish a perpetual grant by the banks of those Lotus-ponds--to wit, food for the hungry, drink for the thirsty, raiment for the naked, means of conveyance for those who have need of it, couches for the tired, wives for

p. 264

those who want wives, gold for the poor, and money for those who are in want."

'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory established a perpetual grant by the banks of those Lotus-ponds--to wit, food for the hungry, drink for the thirsty, raiment for the naked, means of conveyance for those who needed it, couches for the tired, wives for those who wanted wives, gold for the poor, and money for those who were in want.

------------------------

64. 'Now, Ānanda, the people (Brāhmans and laymen) went to the Great King of Glory, taking with them much wealth. And they said:

'"This abundant wealth, O King, have we brought here for the use of the King of Kings. Let the King accept it of us!"

'"I have enough wealth, my friends, laid up for myself, the produce of righteous taxation. Do you keep this, and take away more with you!"

65. 'When those men were thus refused by the King they went aside and considered together, saying:

'"It would not beseem us now, were we to take back this wealth to our own houses. Suppose, now, we were to build a mansion for the Great King of Glory."

66. 'Then they went to the Great King of Glory, and said:

'"A mansion would we build for thee, O King!"'

'"Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory signified, by silence, his consent.

------------------------

67. 'Now, Ānanda, when Sakka, the king of the gods, became aware in his mind of the thoughts that

p. 265

were in the heart of the Great King of Glory, he addressed Vissakamma the god[1], and said:

'"Come now, Vissakamma, create me a mansion for the Great King of Glory--a palace which shall be called 'Righteousness[2].'"

68. '"Even so, Lord!" said Vissakamma, in assent, Ānanda, to Sakka, the king of the gods. And as instantaneously as a strong man might stretch forth his folded arm, or draw in his arm again when it was stretched forth, so quickly did he vanish from the heaven of the Great Thirty-Three, and appeared before the Great King of Glory.

69. 'Then, Ānanda, Vissakamma the god said to the Great King of Glory:

'"I would create for thee, O King, a mansion--a palace which shall be called 'Righteousness!'"

'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory signified, by silence, his consent.

------------------------

70. 'So Vissakamma the god, Ānanda, created for the Great King of Glory a mansion--a palace to be called "Righteousness."

71. 'The Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, was on the east and on the west a league in length, and on the north and on the south half a league in breadth.

72. 'The ground-floor, Ānanda, of the Palace of Righteousness[3], in height as three times the height to which a man can reach, was built of bricks, of four kinds. One kind of brick was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal.

[1. Vissakammam devaputtam, where devaputtam means not 'son of a god,' but 'belonging to, born into the class of, the gods.'

2. Dhammam nāma Pāsādam.

3. Dhammassa pāsādassa vatthum.]

p. 266

73. 'To the Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, there were eighty-four thousand pillars of four kinds. One kind of pillar was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal.

74. 'The Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, was fitted up with seats of four kinds. One kind of seat was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal.

75. 'In the Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, there were twenty-four staircases of four kinds. One staircase was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal. The staircase of gold had balustrades of gold, with the cross bars and the figure head of silver. The staircase of silver had balustrades of silver, with the cross bars and the figure head of gold. The staircase of beryl had balustrades of beryl, with the cross bars and the figure head of crystal. The staircase of crystal had balustrades of crystal, with cross bars and figure head of beryl.

76. 'In the Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, there were eighty-four thousand chambers of four kinds. One kind of chamber was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal.

'In the golden chamber a silver couch was spread; in the silver chamber a golden couch; in the beryl chamber a couch of ivory; and in the crystal chamber a couch of coral.

'At the door of the golden chamber there stood a palm tree of silver; and its trunk was of silver, and its leaves and fruits of gold.

'At the door of the silver chamber there stood a palm tree of gold; and its trunk was of gold, and its leaves and fruits of silver.

p. 267

'At the door of the beryl chamber there stood a palm tree of crystal; and its trunk was of crystal, and its leaves and fruits of beryl.

'At the door of the crystal chamber there stood a palm tree of beryl; and its trunk was of beryl, and its leaves and fruits of crystal.

------------------------

77. 'Now there occurred, Ānanda, to the Great King of Glory this thought:

'"Suppose, now, I were to make a grove of palm trees, all of gold, at the entrance to the chamber of the Great Complex[1], under the shade of which I may pass the heat of the day."

'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory made a grove of palm trees, all of gold, at the entrance to the chamber of the Great Complex, under the shade of which he might pass the heat of the day.

78. 'The Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, was surrounded by a double railing. One railing was of gold, and one was of silver. The golden railing had its posts of gold, and its cross bars and its figure head of silver. The silver railing had its posts of silver, and its cross bars and its figure head of gold[2].

79. 'The Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, was hung round with two networks of bells. One network of bells was of gold, and one was of silver.

[1. Mahāvyūhassa kutāgārassa dvāre. The 'Great Complex' contains a double allusion, in the same spirit in which the whole legend has been worked out: 1. To the Great Complex as a name of the Sun-God recorded as a unity of the four mythological deities, Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pragumna, and Aniruddha; and 2. To the Great Complex as a name of a particular kind of deep religious meditation or speculation.

2. See above, § 60, and the note on § 54.]

p. 268 The golden network had bells of silver, and the silver network had bells of gold.

80. 'And when those networks of bells, Ānanda, were shaken by the wind there arose a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating.

'Just, Ānanda, as the seven kind of instruments yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating--just even so, Ānanda, when those networks of bells were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating.

81. 'And whoever, Ānanda, in the royal city Kusāvatī were at that time gamblers, drunkards, and given to drink, they used to dance round together to the sound of those networks of bells when shaken by the wind.

------------------------

82. 'When the Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, was finished it was hard to look at, destructive to the eyes. just, Ānanda, as in the last month of the rains in the autumn time, when the sky has become clear and the clouds have vanished away, the sun, springing up along the heavens, is hard to look at, and destructive to the eyes,--just so, Ānanda, when the Palace of Righteousness was finished was it hard to look at, and destructive to the eyes.

------------------------

83. 'Now there occurred, Ānanda, to the Great King of Glory this thought:

'"Suppose, now, in front of the Palace of Righteousness, I were to make a Lotus-lake to bear the name of 'Righteousness.'"

'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory made a Lotus-lake to bear the name of "Righteousness."

p. 269

84. 'The Lake of Righteousness, Ānanda, was on the east and on the west a league in length, and on the north and on the south half a league in breadth.

85. 'The Lake of Righteousness, Ānanda, was faced with tiles of four kinds. One kind of tile was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal.

86. 'The Lake of Righteousness, Ānanda, had four and twenty flights of steps, of four different kinds. One flight of steps was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal. The flight of golden steps had balustrades of gold, with the cross bars and the figure head of silver. The flight of silver steps had balustrades of silver, with the cross bars and the figure head of gold. The flight of beryl steps had balustrades of beryl, with the cross bars and the figure head of crystal. The flight of crystal steps had balustrades of crystal, with cross bars and figure head of beryl.

87. 'Round the Lake of Righteousness, Ānanda, there ran a double railing. One railing was of gold, and one was of silver. The golden railing had its posts of gold, and its cross bars and its capitals of silver. The silver railing had its posts of silver, and its cross bars and its capitals of gold.

88. 'The Lake of Righteousness, Ānanda, was surrounded by seven rows of palm trees. One row was of palms of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal, and one of agate, and one of coral, and one of all kinds of gems.

89. 'And the golden palms had trunks of gold, and leaves and fruits of silver. And the silver palms had trunks of silver, and leaves and fruits of gold. And the palms of beryl had trunks of beryl,

p. 270

and leaves and fruits of crystal. And the crystal palms had trunks of crystal, and leaves and fruits of beryl. And the agate palms had trunks of agate, and leaves and fruits of coral. And the coral palms had trunks of coral, and leaves and fruits of agate. And the palms of every kind of gem had trunks and leaves and fruits of every kind of gem.

90. 'And when those rows of palm trees, Ānanda, were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating.

'Just, Ānanda, as the seven kind of instruments yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating,--just even so, Ānanda, when those rows of palm trees were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating.

91. 'And whoever, Ānanda[1], in the royal city Kusāvatī were at that time gamblers, drunkards, and given to drink, they used to dance round together to the sound of those palms when shaken by the wind.

------------------------

92. 'When the Palace of Righteousness, Ānanda, was finished, and the Lotus-lake of Righteousness was finished, the Great King of Glory entertained with all good things those of the Samanas who, at that time, were held in high esteem, and those of the Brāhmans who, at that time, were held in high esteem. Then he ascended up into the Palace of Righteousness.'

------------------------

End of the First Portion for Recitation.

[1. This paragraph is perhaps repeated by mistake; but it is scarcely less in harmony with its context at § 8 than it is here. It is more probable that § 92 followed, originally, immediately after § 82, with the Lotus-lake clause omitted.]

p. 271

CHAPTER II.

1. 'Now there occurred, Ānanda, this thought to the Great King of Glory:

'"Of what previous character, now, may this be the fruit, of what previous character the result, that I am now so mighty and so great?"

2. 'And then occurred, Ānanda, to the Great King of Glory this thought:

'"Of three qualities is this the fruit, of three qualities the result, that I am now so mighty and so great,--that is to say, of giving, of self-conquest, and of self-control[1]."

------------------------

3. 'Now the Great King of Glory, Ānanda, ascended up into the chamber of the Great Complex; and when he had come there he stood at the door, and there he broke out into a cry of intense emotion:

'"Stay here, O thoughts of lust!

'"Stay here, O thoughts of ill-will!

'"Stay here, O thoughts of hatred!

'"Thus far only, O thoughts of lust!

'"Thus far only, O thoughts of ill-will

'"Thus far only, O thoughts of hatred!"

4. 'And when, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory had entered the chamber of the Great Complex,

[1. I have here translated kamma by 'previous character' and by 'quality.' The easiest plan would, no doubt, have been, to preserve in the translation the technical term karma, which is explained at some length in 'Buddhism,' pp. 99-106.]

p. 272

and had seated himself upon the couch of gold, having put away all passion and all unrighteousness, he entered into, and remained in, the First Ghāna,--a state of joy and ease, born of seclusion, full of reflection, full of investigation.

5. 'By suppressing reflection and investigation, he entered into, and remained in, the Second Ghāna,--a state of joy and ease, born of serenity, without reflection, without investigation, a state of elevation of mind, of internal calm.

6. 'By absence of the longing after joy, he remained indifferent, conscious, self-possessed, experiencing in his body that ease which the noble ones announce, saying, "The man indifferent and self-possessed is well at ease," and thus he entered into, and remained in, the Third Ghāna.

7. 'By putting away ease, by putting away pain, by the previous dying away both of gladness and of sorrow, he entered into, and remained in, the Fourth Ghāna,--a state of purified self-possession and equanimity, without ease, and without pain[1].

------------------------

8. 'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory went out from the chamber of the Great Complex, and entered the golden chamber and sat himself down on the silver couch. And he let his mind pervade

[1. The above paragraphs are an endeavour to express the inmost feelings when they are first strung to the uttermost by the intense effects of deep religious emotion, and then feel the effects of what may be called, for want of a better word, the reaction. Most deeply religious natures have passed through such a crisis; and though the feelings are perhaps really indescribable, this passage is dealing, not with a vain mockery, but with a very real event in spiritual experience.]

p. 273

one quarter of the world with thoughts of Love; and so the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, and everywhere, did he continue to pervade with heart of Love, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure, free from the least trace of anger or ill-will.

9. 'And he let his mind pervade one quarter of the world with thoughts of Pity; and so the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, and everywhere, did he continue to pervade with heart of Pity, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure, free from the least trace of anger or ill-will.

10. 'And he let his mind pervade one quarter of the world with thoughts of Sympathy; and so the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, and everywhere, did he continue to pervade with heart of Sympathy, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure, free from the least trace of anger or ill-will.

11. 'And he let his mind pervade one quarter of the world with thoughts of Equanimity[1]; and so the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, and everywhere, did he continue to pervade with heart of Equanimity, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure, free from the least trace of anger or ill-will.

[1. These are the four Appamańńas or infinite feelings, also called (e.g. below, § II, 36) the four Brahma-vihāras. They are here very appropriately represented to follow immediately after {footnote p. 274} the state of feeling described in the Ghānas; but they ought to be the constant companions of a good Buddhist (see Khaggavisāna Sutta 8; and compare also Tevigga Sutta III, 7; Gātaka, vol. i. p. 246; and the Araka Gātaka, No. 169).]

p. 274

12. 'The Great King of Glory, Ānanda, had four and eighty thousand cities, the chief of which was the royal city of Kusāvatī:

'Four and eighty thousand palaces, the chief of which was the Palace of Righteousness:

'Four and eighty thousand chambers, the chief of which was the chamber of the Great Complex:

'Four and eighty thousand divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins; covered with lofty canopies; and provided at both ends with purple cushions:

'Four and eighty thousand state elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,--of which the king of elephants, called "the Changes of the Moon," was chief:

'Four and eighty thousand state horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,--of which "Thunder-cloud," the king of horses, was the chief:

'Four and eighty thousand chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, and of tigers, and of panthers,--of which the chariot called "the Flag of Victory" was the chief:

'Four and eighty thousand gems, of which the Wondrous Gem was the chief:

'Four and eighty thousand wives, of whom the Queen of Glory was the chief:

p. 275

'Four and eighty thousand yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward was the chief:

'Four and eighty thousand nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser was the chief:

'Four and eighty thousand cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze:

'Four and eighty thousand myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, and silk, and wool:

'Four and eighty thousand dishes, in which, in the evening and in the morning, rice was served[1].

------------------------

13. 'Now at that time, Ānanda, the four and eighty thousand state elephants used to come every evening and every morning to be of service to the Great King of Glory.

14. 'And this thought occurred to the Great King of Glory:

'"These eighty thousand elephants come every evening and every morning to be of service to me. Suppose, now, I were to let the elephants come in alternate forty thousands, once each, every alternate hundred years!"

15. 'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory said to the Great Adviser:

'"O, my friend, the Great Adviser! these eighty thousand elephants come every evening and every morning to be of service to me. Now, let the elephants come, O my friend, the Great Adviser, in

[1. Most of the trappings and cloths here mentioned are the same as those referred to in the Magghima Sīla, §§ 5, 6, 7 recurring in the Tevigga Sutta, and in the Brahmagāla Sutta. The whole paragraph is four times repeated below, §§ 29, 31, 33, 37.]

p. 276

alternate forty thousands, once each, every alternate hundred years!"

'"Even so, Lord!" said the Wonderful Adviser, in assent, to the Great King of Glory.

16. 'From that time forth, Ānanda, the elephants came in alternate forty thousands, once each, every alternate hundred years.

------------------------

17. 'Now, Ānanda, after the lapse of many years, of many hundred years, of many thousand years, there occurred to the Queen of Glory[1] this thought:

'"'Tis long since I have beheld the Great King of Glory. Suppose, now, I were to go and visit the Great King of Glory."

18. 'Then, Ānanda, the Queen of Glory said to the women of the harem:

'"Arise now, dress your hair, and clad yourselves in fresh raiment. 'Tis long since we have beheld the Great King of Glory. Let us go and visit the Great King of Glory!"

19. "'Even so, Lady!" said the women of the harem, Ānanda, in assent, to the Queen of Glory. And they dressed their hair, and clad themselves in fresh raiment, and came near to the Queen of Glory.

20. 'Then, Ānanda, the Queen of Glory said to the Great Adviser:

'"Arrange, O Great Adviser, the fourfold army in array. 'Tis long since I have beheld the Great King of Glory. I am about to go to visit the Great King of Glory."

[1. Subhaddā Devī. Subhadda, 'glorious, magnificent,' is a not uncommon name both for men and women in Buddhist and post-Buddhistic Hindu literature.]

p. 277

21. '"Even so, O Queen!" said the Great Adviser, Ānanda, in assent, to the Queen of Glory. And he set the fourfold army in array, and had the fact announced to the Queen of Glory in the words:

'"The fourfold army, O Queen, is set for thee in array. Do now whatever seemeth to thee fit."

22. 'Then, Ānanda, the Queen of Glory, with the fourfold army, repaired, with the women of the harem, to the Palace of Righteousness. And when she had arrived there she mounted up into the Palace of Righteousness, and went on to the chamber of the Great Complex. And when she had reached it, she stopped and leant against the side of the door.

23. 'When, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory heard the noise he thought:

'"What, now, may this noise, as of a great multitude of people, mean?"

24. And going out from the chamber of the Great Complex, he beheld the Queen of Glory standing leaning up against the side of the door. And when he beheld her, he said to the Queen of Glory:

'"Stop there, O Queen! Enter not!"

------------------------

25. 'Then the Great King of Glory, Ānanda, said to one of his attendants:

'"Arise, good man! take the golden couch out of the chamber of the Great Complex, and make it ready under that grove of palm trees which is all of gold."

26. '"Even so, Lord!" said the man, in assent, to the Great King of Glory. And he took the golden couch out of the chamber of the Great Complex, and made it ready under that grove of palm trees which was all of gold.

p. 278

27. 'Then, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory laid himself down in the dignified way a lion does; and lay with one leg resting on the other, calm and self-possessed.

------------------------

28. 'Then, Ānanda, there occurred to the Queen of Glory this thought:

'"How calm are all the limbs of the Great King of Glory! How clear and bright is his appearance! O may it not be that the Great King of Glory is dead[1]!"

29. 'And she said to the Great King of Glory:

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand cities, the chief of which is the royal city of Kusāvatī. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand palaces, the chief of which is the Palace of Righteousness. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand chambers, the chief of which is the chamber of the Great Complex. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins; covered with lofty canopies; and provided at both ends with purple cushions. Arise,

[1. The rather curious connexion between these clauses is worthy of notice in comparison with the legend of the 'Transfiguration' just before the Buddha's death (above, pp. 80-82).]

p. 279 O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand state elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,-of which the king of elephants, called 'the Changes of the Moon,' is chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand state horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network, of which 'Thunder-cloud,' the king of horses, is the chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, and of tigers, and of panthers,-of which the chariot called 'the Flag of Victory' is the chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand gems, of which the Wondrous Gem is the chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand wives, of whom the Queen of Glory is the chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward is the chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser is the

p. 280

chief Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, and silk, and wool. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!

'"Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand dishes, in which, in the evening and in the morning, rice is served. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken thy longing after life!"

------------------------

30. 'When she had thus spoken, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory said to the Queen of Glory:

'"Long hast thou addressed me, O Queen, in pleasant words, much to be desired, and sweet. Yet now in this last time you speak in words unpleasant, disagreeable, not to be desired."

31. '"How then, O King, shall I address thee?"

'"Thus, O Queen, shouldst thou address me:--The nature of all things near and dear to us, O King, is such that we must leave them, divide ourselves from them, separate ourselves from them[1]. Pass not away, O King, with longing in thy heart. Sad is the death of him who longs, unworthy is the death of him who longs[2]. Thine, O King, are these

[1. The Pāli words are the same as those at the beginning of the constantly repeated longer phrase to the same effect in the Book of the Great Decease.

2. Compare Gātaka, No. 34.]

p. 281

four and eighty thousand cities, the chief of which is the royal city of Kusāvatī. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand palaces, the chief of which is the Palace of Righteousness. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand chambers, the chief of which is the chamber of the Great Complex. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins; covered with lofty canopies; and provided at both ends with purple cushions. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand state elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,--of which the king of elephants, called 'the Changes of the Moon,' is chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand state horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,--of which 'Thunder-cloud,' the king of horses, is the chief Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, and of tigers, and of panthers,--of which the chariot called 'the Flag of Victory' is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

p. 282

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand gems, of which the Wondrous Gem is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand wives, of whom the Queen of Glory is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward is the chief Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and. eighty thousand cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, and silk, and wool. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand dishes, in which, in the evening and in the morning, rice is served. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!"

------------------------

32. 'When he thus spake, Ānanda, the Queen of Glory wept and poured forth tears.

33. 'Then, Ānanda, the Queen of Glory wiped away her tears, and addressed the Great King of Glory, and said:

'"The nature of all things near and dear to us, O King, is such that we must leave them, divide

p. 283

ourselves from them, separate ourselves from them. Pass not away, O King, with longing in thy heart. Sad is the death of him who longs, unworthy is the death of him who longs. Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand cities, the chief of which is the royal city of Kusāvatī. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand palaces, the chief of which is the Palace of Righteousness. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand chambers, the chief of which is the chamber of the Great Complex. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins; covered with lofty canopies; and provided at both ends with purple cushions. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand state elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,--of which the king of elephants, called 'the Changes of the Moon,' is chief Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand state horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,--of which 'Thunder-cloud,' the king of horses, is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand

p. 284

chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, and of tigers, and of panthers,--of which the chariot called 'the Flag of Victory' is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand gems, of which the Wondrous Gem is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand wives, of whom the Queen of Glory is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser is the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, and silk, and wool. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

'"Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand dishes, in which, in the evening and in the morning, rice is served. Cast away desire for these! long not after life!

------------------------

34. 'Then immediately, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory died. Just, Ānanda, as when a yeoman has eaten a hearty meal he becomes all drowsy,

p. 285

just so were the feelings he experienced, Ānanda, as death came upon the Great King of Glory.

35. 'When the Great King of Glory, Ānanda, had died, he came to life again in the happy world of Brahmā.

36. 'For eight and forty thousand years, Ānanda, the Great King of Glory lived the happy life of a prince; for eight and forty thousand years he was viceroy and heir-apparent; for eight and forty thousand years he ruled the kingdom; and for eight and forty thousand years he lived, as a layman, the noble life in the Palace of Righteousness. And then, when full of noble thoughts, he died; he entered, after the dissolution of the body, the noble world of Brahma[1].

------------------------

37. 'Now it may be, Ānanda, that you may think "The Great King of Glory of that time was another person." But, Ānanda, you should not view the matter thus. I at that time was the Great King of Glory.

'Mine at that time were the four and eighty thousand cities, of which the chief was the royal city of Kusāvatī.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand palaces, of which the chief was the Palace of Righteousness.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand chambers, of which the chief was the chamber of the Great Complex.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand divans,

[1. The 'noble thoughts' are the Brahma-vihāras, described above, Chap. II, §§ 8-11. The 'noble life' is the Brahmakariyam, which does not mean the same as it does in Sanskrit. The adjective Brahma may have reference here also to the subsequent (and consequent?) rebirth in the Brahma-loka.]

p. 286

of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins; covered with lofty canopies; and provided at both ends with purple cushions.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand state elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,--of which the king of elephants, called "the Changes of the Moon," was chief.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand state horses, with trappings, of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings of network,--of which "Thunder-cloud," the king of horses, was the chief.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, and of tigers, and of panthers,--of which the chariot called "the Flag of Victory" was the chief.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand gems, of which the Wondrous Gem was the chief.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand wives, of whom the Queen of Glory was the chief.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward was the chief.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser was the chief,

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, and silk, and wool.

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand dishes, in which, in the evening and in the morning, rice was served.

------------------------

p. 287

38. 'Of those four and eighty thousand cities, Ānanda, one was that city in which, at that time, I used to dwell--to wit, the royal city of Kusāvatī.

'Of those four and eighty thousand palaces too, Ānanda, one was that palace in which, at that time, I used to dwell--to wit, the Palace of Righteousness.

'Of those four and eighty thousand chambers too, Ānanda, one was that chamber in which, at that time, I used to dwell--to wit, the chamber of the Great Complex.

Of those four and eighty thousand divans too, Ānanda, one was that divan which, at that time, I used to occupy--to wit, one of gold, or one of silver, or one of ivory, or one of sandal wood.

'Of those four and eighty thousand state elephants too, Ānanda, one was that elephant which, at that time, I used to ride--to wit, the king of elephants, "the Changes of the Moon."

'Of those four and eighty thousand horses too, Ānanda, one was that horse which, at that time, I used to ride--to wit, the king of horses, "the Thunder-cloud."

'Of those four and eighty thousand chariots too, Ānanda, one was that chariot in which, at that time, I used to ride--to wit, the chariot called "the Flag of Victory."

'Of those four and eighty thousand wives too, Ānanda, one was that wife who, at that time, used to wait upon me--to wit, either a lady of noble birth, or a Velāmikānī.

'Of those four and eighty thousand myriads of suits of apparel too, Ānanda, one was the suit of apparel which, at that time, I wore--to wit, one of delicate texture, of linen, or cotton, or silk, or wool.

p. 288

'Of those four and eighty thousand dishes too, Ānanda, one was that dish from which, at that time, I ate a measure of rice and the curry suitable thereto.

------------------------

39. 'See, Ānanda, how all these things are now past, are ended, have vanished away. Thus impermanent, Ānanda, are component things; thus transitory, Ānanda, are component things; thus untrustworthy, Ānanda, are component things. Insomuch, Ānanda, is it meet to be weary of, is it meet to be estranged from, is it meet to be set quite free from the bondage of all component things!

------------------------

40. 'Now I call to mind, Ānanda, how in this spot my body had been six times buried. And when I was dwelling here as the righteous king who ruled in righteousness, the lord of the four regions of the earth, the conqueror, the protector of his people, the possessor of the seven royal treasures--that was the seventh time.

41. 'But I behold not any spot, Ānanda, in the world of men and gods, nor in the world of Māra, nor in the world of Brahma,--no, not among the race of Samanas or Brāhmans, of gods or men,--where the Tathāgata for the eighth time will lay aside his body[1].'

[1. The whole of this conversation between the Great King of Glory and the Queen is very much shorter in the Gātaka, the enumeration of the possessions of the Great King being omitted (except the first clause referring to the four and eighty thousand cities), and clauses 34-38, 40, and 41 being also left out, § 39 and the concluding being placed in the mouth of the King immediately after § 33. This may be perhaps partly explained by the narrative style in which the Gātakas are composed--a style incompatible {footnote p. 289} with the repetitions of the Suttas, and confined to the facts of the story.

But I think that no one can read this Sutta in comparison with the short passage found in the Book of the Great Decease (above, pp. 99-101) without feeling that the latter is the more original of the two, and that the legend had not, when the Book of the Great Decease was composed, attained to its present extended form.

We seem therefore really to have three stages of the legend before us, and though the Gātaka story was actually put into its present shape at a known date (the fifth century of our era) long after the latest possible date for the Book of the Great King of Glory, it has probably preserved for us a reminiscence of what the legend was at the time when the Book of the Great Decease was composed.]

p. 289

42. Thus spake the Blessed One; and when the Happy One had thus spoken, once again the Teacher said:

How transient are all component things!
Growth is their nature and decay:
They are produced, they are dissolved again:
And then is best, when they have sunk to rest[1]!'

------------------------

End of the Mahā-Sudassana Sutta.

[1. On this celebrated verse, see the note at Mahāparinibbāna Sutta VI, 16, where it is put into the mouth of Sakka, the king of the gods, and the discussion in the Introduction to this Sutta.]

Enter supporting content here